That is a very good question!
While GLOBE 2020 broadly targets managerial respondents who identify themselves on the survey as Upper Level Managers, Middle Level Managers or Lower Level Managers, we also accept into the sample professionals who fulfill common managerial roles and responsibilities (e.g., decision-making, strategizing, communicating/negotiating with stakeholders, administrating and providing leadership, etc.). Please note that managers in our sample may be those who manage people and/or those who manage resources. We have made a minor change in the relevant question stem so that in such cases, respondents are encouraged to specify their position title in text box provided for one of the other job position question responses: Non-manager (please specify) or Other (please specify).
Sample job titles that fulfill these professional roles and can be accepted into the sample include project manager, accountant, engineer, lawyer, professor/instructor/researcher, advisor, consultant, and functional specialist/expert/coordinator/administrator of various areas/departments (e.g., sales, marketing, HR, IT, business development, etc.).
Additionally, senior leaders who may not consider themselves ‘managers’ per se, but who nonetheless very much fulfill multiple managerial roles and responsibilities are also perfectly acceptable to include in the GLOBE 2020 sample. In such cases, respondents are also encouraged to specify their job roles in the Non-manager (please specify) or Other (please specify) response options as well and typically include job titles, such as: business owner, chairman/chairwoman, entrepreneur and dean.